Pathology is a branch of medicine that involves the precise study of the cause, origin, and nature of the disease. It encompasses the examination of body tissues (biopsy, pap smears), organs, bodily fluids (blood, urine) and in some cases the whole body (autopsy). The results which are obtained from these tests help the doctor in diagnosing the problem and giving the desired treatment.
Pathology also includes the related scientific study of disease processes where the causes and the extent to which the disease has breached the body are examined. Doctors who study the above-mentioned facts are known as pathologists. They are expert in diagnosing a wide range of diseases including cancer. Majority of the diagnosis of cancer is made by pathologists only.
The diagnosis is made with the help of microscopic analysis of samples from bodily fluids, tissue organs and the entire body if needed. Cell appearance, anatomical makeup and chemical signatures within cells are included in the test. It is subdivided into histology, cytology and forensic pathology. In histology, the architecture of the bodily tissue is observed at a microscopic level and the relationship between different cells and tissue is examined.
In cytology, the tissues are examined at the cellular level in order to screen the disease. A cytologist will see how the cells look, form and function. Finally, there is the forensic pathology in which an autopsy is examined in order to discover the exact cause of death. Body is checked both internally and externally to see if to see whether the injuries are connected to each other.
It concerns the analysis of blood, urine and tissue samples to diagnose the disease. Information about blood count, blood clotting, and an electrolyte are revealed with clinical pathology. All this information is extracted using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular biology. Some of the common tools used are microscopes, analyzers, strips and centrifugal machines.
It is also known as biochemistry. Chemical pathologists examine all aspects of diseases and identify the changes in blood and bodily fluids. These fluids include proteins, hormones, and electrolytes. In chemical pathology, there is the combination of practical laboratory and clinical skills. They also provide guidance on the selection of appropriate tests and assess the significance of the results obtained. They work along with the patients suffering from metabolic disturbances and it comes under body’s internal chemistry.