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Traumatic Brain Injury​

What is Traumatic Brain Injury​ ?

Traumatic Brain Injury Management (TBI) is a brain dysfunction caused by an external force. It usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head. Any object which has the tendency to penetrate brain tissue such as a bullet or shattered piece of the skull can also cause traumatic brain injury. In case of mild traumatic injury, our brain cells are temporarily affected.

In case of more serious traumatic brain injury, there is bruising, torn tissue, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain. More than one million individuals encounter a brain injury, for example, a closed brain injury or penetrating brain injury leading to softening up of the skull. These injuries can result in long-term complications or death.

Traumatic brain injury has wide-ranging physical and psychological effects. Some may appear immediately or other may appear days or weeks later. Some of the common symptoms are –

  • In case of mild traumatic brain injury, there is a loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes, headache, nausea, difficulty in sleeping, loss of balance, sensory problems such as blurred vision, ringing in the ears, changes in the ability to smell, memory or concentration problem, depression etc.
  • In case of moderate to severe symptoms, there is a loss of consciousness from several minutes to hours, persistent headaches, repeated vomiting, seizures, dilation of one or both pupils, loss of coordination, profound confusion, agitation, combativeness or unusual behavior, slurred speech, coma etc.
  • Infants and children with brain injuries might not be able to communicate headaches, sensory problems, confusion, and similar symptoms. Change in eating habits, persistent crying, change in sleep habits, sad or depressed mood etc is also observed.


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Medication – medications limit secondary damage to the brain immediately after an injury. Diuretics are the drugs which reduce the amount of fluid in tissues and increase urine output. Anti-seizure drugs are given during the first week to avoid any additional brain damage. Coma induces drugs are used sometimes when the blood vessels compressed by increased pressure in the brain are unable to supply brain cells with normal amounts of nutrients and oxygen.

Surgery – surgery is given to remove clotted blood, repair skull fractures or to remove pieces of skull in the brain, bleeding in the brain, opening a window in the skull to relieve pressure inside the skull by draining accumulated cerebral spinal fluid or creating window.

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