Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for Movement Disorders
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18, January 2024

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for Movement Disorders

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a groundbreaking therapeutic approach in the realm of Neurological Care, that has revolutionized the treatment landscape for various movement disorders. While medication has been the mainstay for managing these disorders, its efficacy may wane over time, and some patients may develop medication-related side effects that further complicate their management. 

In this blog, we have elaborated on the role of deep brain stimulation in the management of some such disorders, which can severely impair a patient's quality of life, limit their ability to perform daily activities and diminish their overall well-being, with the help of the best Neurologist in Delhi. 

What is Deep Brain Stimulation?

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a surgical intervention that has emerged as a promising alternative for individuals with movement disorders. This cutting-edge technique involves the precise and controlled application of electrical impulses to specific brain regions responsible for abnormal movements, thereby restoring neural circuitry function and ameliorating the symptoms. The procedure has gained tremendous impetus over the years and is recommended by all the best Neurosurgeons in Delhi

The Essence of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Deep Brain Stimulation works on the principle of modulating neural activity through targeted electrical stimulation of specific brain structures. This typically consists of three components: the implanted pulse generator (IPG), the lead/electrode, and the extension. The IPG, like a pacemaker, is placed under the skin, often in the chest, while the lead or electrode is precisely inserted into the target area of the brain. The extension connects the IPG to the lead, allowing for the transmission of electrical signals. The targeted brain regions for DBS differ depending on the movement disorder being treated. 

Some of the conditions in which DBS has been used or is being investigated:

  1. Parkinson's Disease: DBS is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson's disease when medication alone fails to provide adequate symptom control. Targeting specific brain regions, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus internus (GPi), can alleviate motor symptoms like tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and motor fluctuations.
  2. Essential Tremor: Essential tremor, a neurological disorder characterized by uncontrollable shaking, can be effectively managed with DBS. The ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus is the most common target for essential tremor treatment.
  3. Dystonia: DBS has demonstrated efficacy in treating various forms of dystonia, including generalized, segmental, and focal dystonias. The globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are commonly targeted regions.
  4. Epilepsy: While the primary treatment for epilepsy remains antiepileptic medications, DBS has been explored as adjunctive therapy for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Specific brain regions, such as the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and the hippocampus, have been targeted.

Other than these, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is applied or researched in conditions such as Major Depressive Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).

Patient Selection and Assessment:

While DBS has showcased remarkable success, top Neurology Specialists in Delhi suggest that not every patient with a movement disorder is a suitable candidate. Thorough patient selection is vital to achieve optimal outcomes. Candidates typically undergo a detailed evaluation process, including neurological assessments, imaging studies, and psychological evaluations.

Like any medical intervention, DBS also carries certain risks, including surgical complications, infections, and hardware malfunctions. The DBS surgery is a complex procedure that demands precision and expertise. Nonetheless, the overall safety profile of DBS is considered favourable, and its benefits often outweigh the risks in appropriately selected patients. You can find the best Neurology Doctor in Delhi at IBS Hospital, who holds immense expertise in performing the procedure and has transformed countless lives over the years by putting it to the best use.

Dr Aaksha Shukla By -Dr Aaksha Shukla | January 18, 2024 | 9 Min Read

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